How Does An Electric Scooter Work [Mechanism Explained]

Electric scooters are getting pretty popular in city streets these days. They don’t make a lot of noise and are environment friendly as they do not produce gas fumes.

Also, they are quite easy to operate. Thus, it’s very suitable for day to day life.

But the concept of a scooter running on electric energy is still not clear to a lot of people. From the parts to the operation, it might be a bit confusing. So, now you are probably wondering how does an electric scooter work?

The mechanism can’t be explained within a few words. Let’s discuss the topic in greater detail down below.

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Electric Scooters: Everything You Need To Know about how it works.........

As a small ride, it runs on a couple of basic mechanisms. Let’s go over the ultimate guide to electric kick scooters and discuss all the mechanisms, parts and functions down below.

Types of Electric Scooters

Before going over how does electric scooters work, you should get an idea on the types of scooters that are available. There are 3 main types of e-scooters available out there. One is designed for kids, one’s for adults and college students, another one is 3 wheel seated electric scooters. E-Scooters designed for kids are much smaller compared to the ones for adults. Also, these tend to go for a single motor in them. It’s mainly because a kid doesn’t weigh too much, and thus, the motor doesn’t get too much pressure. You’ll easily find these scooters under 200 bucks in the market.

Electric scooters designed for adults are a bit more powerful. As they have to carry more weight, they usually come with 2 motor. These are priced somewhere between 500-1000 dollars. To get an electric scooter designed for heavy adults , you might need to spend a bit more.

Finally, the 3 wheel seated scooters are designed for older adults. If you are asking, “Can I take it for a long drive?”  The answer is “No”. The seat allows for maximum comfort if you choose to drive for an extended period. But take note that you won’t be able to fold a seated electric scooter like the other ones.

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Parts Of An Electric Scooter

The anatomy of an electric scooter will help you understand it better. Each component have different purposes. Let’s take a look at some of the basic components.

1. E-scooter Battery

First, let’s talk about the battery. The majority of the scooters are powered by lithium ion batteries. You may be familiar with these types of batteries. They are widely used on mobile phones and even laptops around the world.

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The rechargeable batteries in an electric scooter typically have a lifespan of 40-45 minutes. That’s enough for a 10-to-25-mile ride on a single charge. This is heavily dependent on the electric motor in your e-scooter.

A high-quality battery, such as a levy electric battery, will last longer. However, as the battery ages, the charge tends to drop very quickly. As a result, you may need to replace the lithium ion battery to maximize battery life durability.

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2. The motors

Electric kick scooters mostly use brushless DC motors to run them. Those brushless motor uses direct current technology that is attached to the wheels. These types of motors are also known as HUB motors.

how do electric scooters work

A large number of scooters are equipped with a single brushless DC motor. However, some of the more powerful models on the market utilize two brushless motors. An adult electric scooter will sometimes have motors on both wheels for extra power.
The power of these motors is measured by wattage. A basic electric scooter comes with a motor that’s around 250 watts. A bit better adult scooters will have dual 500 watts motor, making it more powerful. But some of the extreme performance electric scooters actually come with dual 1200 watts motors.
You definitely don’t need to get such powerful ones. Those are very expensive, and typically, you’ll not need that type of motor in your scooter. Going with an average motor is going to be just enough for your day to day life.

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3.The Speed Controller

The controller uses accelerator’s input to send power to the motor. That helps you to have control over your speed.

No matter what you are riding, speed is an important thing to consider. You can’t just go reckless as it risks lives. Accidents can take place in just a matter of seconds. You must ride your electric scooter at a reasonable speed at all times. Know that electric scooter powertrain also splits power.

The speed controller is in charge of this. The speed is monitored and controlled by this mechanism. It is called the heart of an e-scooter because it distributes power to the motor, allowing you to travel at your own pace.

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The controllers are rated based on the voltage, just like the motors. The more powerful scooters typically have controllers with higher max voltage ratings. The max current rating is also higher for those models.

You should always go with the high-end models as they have the most secure controllers. The cheaper ones have controls that are more likely to malfunction, which you really want to avoid. That would be a real pain to take it for repairs constantly.

4.The Deck of Scooter

The deck is the area on which you stand. The quality of the deck is very important. Some of the higher-end scooter companies use rubberized decks for a better grip.

The grip is extremely important because it allows you to have a better center of gravity, preventing you from falling off the deck while riding. Slippery decks are never a good option for anyone.

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Also, too short decks are not recommended as they will bug you. An average of 14 inches by 5 inches is enough. But feel free to go for more as it’ll help to give you more space and freedom.

5.The Stem

This is the part that connects the handlebars with the front wheel. A good stem helps to give the rider the most stability and control over the scooter.

Most of the scooters out there actually have a folding mechanism. But that can cause frustration due to some of its instability issues. That’s why you should always go for a premium electric scooter that has a stable and durable stem.

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6.Brakes and The Tires

The most important aspect of driving a vehicle, whether small or large, is the braking system systems. A good braking system ensures maximum safety while riding the scooter.

You’ll find scooters with three different braking systems, mechanical, electronic and disc brakes.

Mechanical braking systems offer a much more strong breaking than the electric brakes. But it requires adjustments and maintenance from time to time. The electronic brakes are pretty easy to operate.

Whether it’s a mechanical or electronic brake, you should always go for a good braking system to make sure that you have the most safety and control.

As for the tires, it’s equally as important as the brakes. A good tire allows for better friction with the surface for more control and effective braking.

You’ll find pneumatic tires and solid tires in the market. These are the two types of tires available. One is air-filled, and the other one is airless. The pneumatic tires are better than the airless solid tires. They are better in adverse road conditions. Thus, you’ll get better and comfortable ride quality.

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7. Lights

Lights are really an optional thing that you can go for. Nowadays, an electric scooter comes with a light built-in. But not all are powerful and bright enough.

parts of an electric scooter

If you ride at night, lights are crucial for you. It helps you to ride with better safety. So, going for an electric scooter with good-quality lights is preferable.

8. Suspension

High-performance electric scooters feature amazing suspension that helps to add another dimension to your rides. It basically helps to reduce the effects of bumps.

how electric scooter works

You’ll probably not see this feature in most of the basic scooters. But as you go through more premium electric scooters, you’ll definitely find that they have featured any kind suspension.

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Frequently asked Questions About How Electric Scooter Works

Let’s go over some of the most frequently asked questions down below.

1. How can I charge my electric scooter?

Electric scooters are powered by batteries. The Li-Ion batteries are the most commonly used batteries in these scooters. You may recognize those as some of the laptops or even smartphones use Li-ion batteries as a power source.

But as the charge gets low on your scooter, you’ll see a great decrease in the speed. And if you keep riding it without charging, the wheels will get locked in place.

The process of charging is really simple. You just need to plug the cable into a power socket. That will get the job done perfectly. It’s recommended to charge until the battery percentage is at 100%.

Also, make sure to try to charge the batteries before they get too low. It helps to increase the longevity of the battery of your scooter.

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2. Does an electric scooter have a motor?

Yes, the electric scooters do have a motor. Most of the scooters designed for adults have hub motors built into placed inside the wheels, or even just one. One motor is found on the basic electric scooters, and you’ll find two motors in more powerful scooters.

These types of motors function with brushless direct current. Those are rated with wattage. The more powerful the motor, the more watts it will have. 500 watts is a pretty good number for an average electric scooter.

But you’ll certainly find some models with dual 1200 watts motors too. But the most basic ones will have motors around 250 watts.

3. What type of motor is used in electric scooter?

The electronic scooter runs on brushless DC motors. They are also known as HUB motors. They are directly connected to the wheels. There is no exterior gear system as it’s not required for these types of motors.

The design of the motor makes it less bulky so that it can fit perfectly in. As it takes less space, it suits the purpose of a scooter.

Most of the electric scooters are equipped with just one BLDC motor. But you’ll even see 2 motors used in some of the more powerful scooters out there.

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4. Can you use an electric scooter as a normal scooter?

Well, yes. You can use it a convention kick scooter.

Most of the electric scooters are not able to run for more than 40 minutes or so. That means you might have to use it manually every once in a while.

For the dual motor scooters, it’s pretty obvious. They are designed for both electronic and manual use. So you can just hop on and use it whenever the battery is down. Make sure that the battery completely drained before going manual. Also, be sure to charge it back up as soon as you can.

However, if you own a scooter that does not support dual mode, you may have to get off and push it to your destination. That’s far better compared to folding and carrying it.

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5. How do brakes in electric scooter works?

There’re multiple types of brakes in e-scooters that work differently. For instance, the foot brake consists of a fender covering the rear wheel. When you push the rear fender, it slows down the rear wheel with added friction.

Next is the regenerative brake, which has a brake lever. When you pull it, the brake pads will tighten up the scooter rotor and causes friction to stop the e-scooter while returning some of its energy as kinetic energy for speeding up the scooter.

For proper braking, slightly lean back on the deck and apply the hand brake for an effective stoppage and safety.

6. How do controllers in electric scooters work?

The controller of the e-scooter is an Electronic Circuit (EC) to control the speed. When you trigger the throttle, it receives a signal input and then controls the power flow from the battery by regulating its current capacity.

It controls the speed of the e-scooter by monitoring the current flow and power. Plus, it also helps in regenerative braking capacity. Its capacity is measured with voltage and current output starting from 36V and 10A to going up by 100V and 400A.

For regenerative braking, it converts the heat energy of the wheel into kinetic energy for extra mileage without losing the battery capacity.

7. How does suspension in electric scooters work?

A good suspension system can make daylight of difference when it comes to riding comfort on an e-scooter. A standard suspension consists of preload, coil, shock, and limiter straps.

These components combine to reduce the impacts while driving an electric scooter on roads.

Preload is designed to improve the scooter’s suspension level. Next, there is the coil or spring. It goes through up and down movement to absorb the impact of shocks. Finally, the limiter strap works to reduce the shock impact.

The entire combination of the suspension system offers a smooth and comfy ride with continuous movements to match your riding style.

8. How to perform electric scooter maintenance?

For regular maintenance, check the tires’ pressure and make sure it is between 80-130PSI. Also, at least once a month, check the brake pads to help them function properly.

On top of it, you may need to change the brake pads once in a year as it wears out due to external elements.

Following that, you must take care of the battery as well. Ideally, you should charge it whenever it reaches 30% of its capacity and never completely drain it.

Plus, never store the battery at freezing temperature and let water enter the battery casing. Last but not least, once every month, clean the wheels, tires, and deck for improved performance and longevity.

9. Do electric scooters have gears?

E-scooters, technically, do not have conventional gears. Instead, it controls its speed settings and riding modes via the most recent single-speed transmission mechanism.

It has a unique motherboard inside that controls the settings. When you press the power button to select your preferred riding mode, a signal is sent to the battery to release the necessary energy to the motor.

Power is transmitted from the battery to the motor via wiring. The entire process is referred to as single-speed. If your scooter has cruise control, you can activate it quickly by pressing the accelerator or throttle button for 5 seconds. You can turn it off by pressing any of the brakes.

10. How long can an electric scooter last in one charge?

It varies depending on the scooter. The majority of scooters on the market will last 40-45 minutes on a single charge. As a result, depending on your scooter’s motor and battery, you’ll be able to travel 10 to 30 miles.

The battery plays a huge role in determining how long the scooter can go per battery charge. Premium scooters undoubtedly have more powerful batteries that allow for more longevity. You should take note that as the battery gets older, the battery life will also drain much faster.

Finally, the number of motors also has an impact on how long your scooter can go on one battery charge.

Final Thoughts On How Does An E-Scooter Work

Now you know everything about how electric scooter works? You might notice that it’s not as complicated as it appears. The vehicle have a lot of potential in the future. Though, it has its pros and cons.

E-scooters are extremely useful. They are very convenient for riding to a short distance in your daily life. Getting a scooter is also reasonably priced. It also does not contribute to any type of pollution. That is what makes it different to any other fossil fuel powered vehicle.

Hopefully, after going through the information shared above, you have a better understanding of the mechanism of an e-scooter by now.

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